Diabetes is a long-term or chronic disease characterized by blood sugar levels (glucose) that are higher and above normal values. This disease has two main types, namely type 1 and type 2 diabetes.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Some of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes include:
Often feel thirsty.
- Frequent urination, especially at night.
- Continual hunger.
- Weight loss without a clear reason.
- Get tired and feel tired.
- Blurred vision.
- Long healed wounds.
- Frequent infections of the skin, urinary tract, gums or vagina.
Causes of Diabetes
Diabetes is caused by a disruption of the body's ability to use glucose into cells, so that glucose accumulates in the blood. In type 1 diabetes, this disorder is caused because the pancreas cannot produce insulin. Whereas in type 2 diabetes, this disorder occurs due to the body being ineffective in using insulin or a relative lack of insulin compared to blood glucose levels. This high glucose level can damage small blood vessels in the kidneys, heart, eyes and nervous system, resulting in various complications.
Diabetes Risk Factors
Risk factors for type 1 diabetes include:
- Factors of family history or heredity, where a person will be more at risk of developing type 1 diabetes if a family member suffers from the same disease, because it is associated with certain genes.
- Geographical factors, where people living in areas away from the equator, such as Finland and Sardinia, are most affected by type 1 diabetes. This is due to a lack of vitamin D, which can trigger autoimmune diseases.
- Age factor, where the disease is most often detected in children aged 4-7 years, then in children aged 10-14 years.
- Other trigger factors, such as consuming cow's milk at an early age, water containing sodium nitrate, cereal and gluten before age 4 months or after 7 months, have a mother with a history of preeclampsia, and have jaundice at birth.
Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:
- Overweight or obese.
- High belly fat distribution.
- Lifestyle is not active and rarely do activities or exercise.
- History of type 2 diabetes in the family.
- Blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, and Asian-Americans, have higher rates of sufferers than white people.
- Age above 45 years, although it does not rule out the possibility can occur before the age of 45 years.
- The condition of prediabetes, where blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes.
- History of diabetes or high blood glucose levels during pregnancy.
- Women with polycystic ovary syndrome, which is characterized by irregular menstruation, excessive hair growth, and obesity.
Doctors will diagnose diabetes in someone by conducting medical interviews, physical examinations, and supporting examinations such as blood and urine examinations.
Treatment of Diabetes
Treatment for type 1 diabetes, including:
- Insulin to control blood glucose in patients. Giving insulin is injected into the layer under the skin about 3-4 times a day according to the recommended dose of the doctor.
- A healthy diet and regular exercise to help control blood glucose levels.
- Take care of your feet and check your eyes regularly to prevent further complications.
Treatment for type 2 diabetes includes:
Changes in a healthy lifestyle include:
- Avoid high-glucose or high-fat foods.
- Increase food high in fiber.
- Exercise regularly, at least 3 hours a week.
- Reducing and maintaining ideal body weight.
- Avoid or stop smoking.
- Avoid or stop consuming alcoholic beverages.
- Maintain healthy feet and prevent injured feet.
- Check eye health conditions regularly.
- Giving diabetes medicines under the supervision of a doctor. These drugs include:
- Metformin to reduce blood glucose levels.
- Sulfonilurea to increase insulin production in the pancreas.
- Pioglitazone as a trigger for insulin.
- Gliptin (DPP-4 inhibitor) as a deterrent to solving GLP-1.
- SGLT-2 inhibitors that affect urine.
- GLP-1 agonist triggers insulin without the risk of hypoglycemia.
- Acarbose to slow down the digestion of carbohydrates.
- Nateglinide and repaglinide to release insulin into the bloodstream.
- Insulin therapy as a companion to other medicines.
- Other drugs that are given to reduce the risk of complications, such as statins and anti-hypertensive drugs.
Complications of Diabetes
Both type 1 and 2 diabetes can cause complications in the form of damage to the retina of the eye, nerve damage, stroke and coronary heart disease, kidney damage, sexual dysfunction, miscarriage, or stillbirth babies from mothers who have diabetes.
Prevention of Diabetes
In type 1 diabetes, include:
Undergoing intensive treatment if there are family members who suffer from type 1 diabetes.
Experiencing DNA testing to find out if someone has a carrier gene or type 1 diabetes.
In type 2 diabetes, include:
Maintain an ideal body weight by eating low-fat foods.
Eating high-fiber foods such as fruits and vegetables.
Reduce consumption of sweet foods and drinks.
Exercise regularly and do a lot of physical activity.
Reducing the time to sit still for too long, like when watching television.
Avoid or stop smoking.
When to go to the doctor?
Contact your doctor immediately to get the best solution if you experience the above symptoms.